western vs eastern concept of self

Western perspectives about self are inherently dualistic. Amber oils spilled out from glass jugs and rained on me. In short, to this false view can be traced all the evil in the world.”. The eight consciousnesses should not be conceived as separate, but rather as eight manifestations or functions of an ongoing process. Is it real? . What the Buddha taught. The practice and theory of individual psychology. The concept of the self in Western psychology derives primarily from the work of Freud, Jung, and Rogers. This larger awareness guides the individual in compassionate action, and eliminates unnecessary worries and suffering about impermanent events, which can now be accepted as the momentary contents of reality. To hurt another becomes to hurt oneself; to help another is to help oneself. The self-realization of Jung became the model for the concept of self-actualization in the humanistic psychologies of Abraham Maslow and Carl Rogers, and it was the latter who added a phenomenological dimension to the self. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul. Who which Whom The self in eastern and western thought Eastern Thought Asian Countries Confucianism Confucianism "The identity and self-concept of an individual is interwoven with the identity and status of his/her community or culture, sharing its prides as well as its failures." 450-474). Create a representation of the Filipino self. A still forest pool: The insight meditation of Achaan Chah. Despite their differences an integration of Western and Eastern approaches may be possible or even necessary. It helps humans deal with human morality and concepts such as good and … Peace is every step: The path of mindfulness in everyday life. Therefore, the self-concept is the idea of who I am, kind of like a self-reflection of one's well-being. Watts, A. Furthermore, in the alayavijnana, the “seeds” affect each other in various ways. Zen Buddhism. This essay shall seek to describe some of the fundamental tenants of African and Western Psychology. Furthermore, in the alayavijnana, the “seeds” affect each other in various ways. Berkeley, CA: Parallax Press. Now stretch your imagination, and assume for a moment that the collection of elements forming the wave had resulted in the phenomenon of consciousness. Despite their differences an integration of Western and Eastern approaches may be possible or even necessary. Differentiate the concept of self according to Western thought against Eastern/Oriental perspectives; 2. At which point did the car disappear? Just as an automobile is a temporary collection of car parts, a person is a temporary arrangement of these five aggregates or skandhas. THE WESTERN CONCEPT OF THE SEI,F 5 when she writes, "As an American researcher, I had been taught to act: independence, mastery, competence, were deemed key vir-tues." But when she interacted with native Japanese, she states, "I felt keenly the deconstruction of the self into various constituents at war with one another" (Kondo 1986:78). It seems so real, and yet, if we look deeply, we can see that there is no thing called “wave” there at all; all there is, is the movement of the water. But for the logger to be, his parents had to be, and the food they consumed, and all the conditions that made their lives possible, and those lives upon which theirs in turn depended, and on, and on. The Buddhist notions of the self are derived from the teachings of Siddhartha Gautama, better known as Shakyamuni Buddha, or simply Buddha (“the one who is awake”), after his experience of enlightenment under the bodhi tree over 2,500 years ago. Look at the world in dualities: you are A. No owner, no one to be old, to be young, to be good or bad, weak or strong. This blog is about spiritual awakening, maps and stages, the blinding effects of our strong momentum/conditioning (karmic propensities), view, realization, experience, etc. Certainly. While understanding universal interconnectedness and absolute reality, the emptiness or, The different conceptions of the self in Western and Eastern psychology have clear implications for psychotherapy and everyday life. According to the teaching of the Buddha, the idea of a [personal] self is an imaginary, false belief which has no corresponding reality, and it produces harmful thoughts of “me” and “mine,” selfish desire, craving, attachment, hatred, ill-will, conceit, pride, egoism, and other defilements, impurities and problems. Buddhist psychology is concerned with the alleviation of the unnecessary suffering caused by the delusion of the separate self in human beings in general. . In Eastern philosophy, though, the self is often treated as an illusion. In the same way, all human problems and suffering disappear when the illusion of a separate self is eliminated. One could try the following mental exercise. Richard C. Page: is an associate professor in the Department of Counseling and Human Development Services at the University of Georgia, Athens. The wave has no separate “self,” no reality apart from the water. Since the 'discovery' of eastern philosophy by western explorers and scholars in the 18th and 19th centuries CE, there has been an arbitrary division maintained, especially in colleges and universities, between 'western philosophy' and 'eastern philosophy' as though these two systems present radically different views of the world. Eastern medicines may seem strange, even far-fetched. The theological dimensions of the concept of soul were elaborated by Augustine of Hippo as well as by Thomas Aquinas, from where it passed into the hands of Rene Descartes, and from there, almost unchanged, but referred to as “mind,” into the realm of 19, Although some Eastern conceptions of the self, most notably those derived from Hinduism, which center on the Vedic notion of the, Reification is the process by which the mind makes a thing (res), or a material object, out of a concept or an abstraction. The self is located at the center within the individual through which the world is perceived. Wisdom and compassion: What the Buddha taught. Sigmund Freud (1940) offered a complex model of this inner self in his tripartite analysis of the human personality into id, ego, and superego, which became a distinguishing feature of his psychoanalytic theory. This false sense of self or ego-individuality defiles the first six consciousnesses and is the source of all sort of psychological problems and delusions. The integration of the two levels of awareness, the absolute and the relative, is essential for the normal functioning of the healthy human being in society. It is the repository of all potential activities of the other consciousnesses. My parents certainly never knew what they were or they might have been better parents and I might have lived a lot better life than I did. (1927). The Buddhist notion of self circumvents reification, being an impermanent gestalt formed by the interaction of five skandhas or aggregates (form, feelings, perceptions, impulses, consciousness). A fist. Another crucial area of comparison for eastern and western philosophy is innate morality. London: Hogarth Press. New York: Grove. New York: Grove. Removing one of the tires of the car, one could ask oneself, is this the car? This can be grasped best with another metaphor, often found in Buddhist literature. By and large, cultures in the West tend to be more individualistic whereas people from the East are more collectivist. The Concept of ‘The Self’ in Western and Eastern Traditions April 2, 2017 April 2, 2017 Jackson H The term ‘self’ refers to an individual human being, along with their body, mind, and in some cases, the concept of a ‘soul’. The psychology of C. G. Jung. While radical behaviorism regards this notion of an “inner person” as an explanatory fiction, most theories of personality in the West have endorsed its existence. Culture may play a critical role in this process. These “seeds,” upon development, produce all sorts of mental phenomena. Essentially the soul, mind, or self was viewed as an inner substance or entity, different from the body, in charge of volitional processes, essentially a “little man inside of the head,” a homunculus within the individual, ultimately responsible for the person’s thoughts and actions. Although the archetypes in the Jungian collective unconscious manifest themselves in dreams and visions, the individual cannot modify their character. 2. Take the form of one’s body, for example. After "strengthening" my ego through self esteem work and venting an ocean of bottled up sorrow and rage, I am now able to work with the "no me/I/self" process taught by you and Tony Parsons and at Liberation Unleashed. They possess no separate essence, self, or soul that could exist by itself, apart from the component parts and conditions. The heart of man. Although it is true that the car, the road, our bodies, and everything else are nothing more than temporary collections of countless particles (or fluctuations of energy, at the quantum level of analysis) and that all there is, is an ocean of energy, where car, road, and person have no more reality than the transient shape of a wave on the surface of the ocean, unless we act in the relative plane, and get out of the way of the car, the collection of skandhas that allows this awareness to occur will be promptly dissolved. Close your hand into a fist and look at it. Because of the delusory nature of any labeling process, with its consequent reifications, any attempt to offer a name for the unnamable Reality must always fall short, although sages have offered terms such as Thusness, Tathagatagarba, Buddha Nature, Dharmakaya, Suchness, the Big Self, the Absolute, or the Tao. Nevertheless, it is not enough for the healthy, liberated individual to eliminate the delusion of the separate self. Because of the delusory nature of any labeling process, with its consequent reifications, any attempt to offer a name for the unnamable Reality must always fall short, although sages have offered terms such as Thusness, According to Walpola Rahula (1974), “Buddhism stands unique in the history of human thought in denying the existence of a [separate] soul, self, or, It is important to realize what is meant by the “self” rejected by the Buddha as illusory. Karen Horney (1950) distinguished between the “real self” and the “idealized self,” the former being regarded as a unique central inner force common to all people and the latter as a fantasy resulting from social pressures and expectations. When we carry a burden, it is heavy; when there is no one to carry it, there is not a problem in the world! no one born, and no one to die. The different conceptions of the self in Western and Eastern psychology have clear implications for psychotherapy and everyday life. Explain the concept of self as found in Asian thoughts; and 3. Helper Pointers to I AM Awakening, etc by Angelo Gerangelo, Öffentlich Covid-geimpfte Krankenschwester möglicherweise gestorben, In Front of Asses, Behind Horses: Illuminating Satori vs. Kensho in Zen, Refuting The External World Is Free For The Next 5 Days. But for the logger to be, his parents had to be, and the food they consumed, and all the conditions that made their lives possible, and those lives upon which theirs in turn depended, and on, and on. This develops positive mental habits rooted in the seeds of the alayavijnana, and has far-reaching effects on the life and well-being of the individual. Indra’s postmodern net. Eastern vs Western Culture The culture of a community or a nation depends upon the surroundings, the values and beliefs that they are brought up upon. Is it real? Usposabljanje za vodenje terapije Evolucija Odnosa, Thusness/PasserBy's Seven Stages of Enlightenment, On Anatta (No-Self), Emptiness, Maha and Ordinariness, and Spontaneous Perfection. 2 With notable exceptions (e.g. The concept of self has gone through significant changes over the last 100 years. They are essentially patterns, configurations, or Gestalten rather than objectively existing separate entities. Just diagnosing and treating the physical body can be effective, especially when dealing with traumas, infections, and cancers. It certainly seems to be. Perhaps it was Carl Gustav Jung (Jacobi, 1942) who provided the most significant expansion of the homuncular thesis in psychology. It is the source of all the troubles in the world, from personal conflicts to wars between nations. What happened to the “real” thing called “fist” that was there a moment ago? Correspondence concerning this article should be addressed to Yozan Dirk Mosig, Department of Psychology, University of Nebraska at Kearney, Kearney, Nebraska 68849. It does not acknowledge energy fields as clinically significant for diagnosis or treatment. The same is true for anything else in the universe, including a person. Just like the term “fist” is a convenient label to designate a particular (and transient) arrangement of the fingers, the term “self” or “I” is nothing but a label for an impermanent arrangement of the skandhas. It is here where the illusion of a subjective “I” or “ego” arises. Western concept of self 94s an individualistic self that is deeply aware of itself, its uniqueness, sense of direction, purpose and volition (act of making choice). It could be argued that the self needs to be strengthened before it can be abandoned. Just like the term “fist” is a convenient label to designate a particular (and transient) arrangement of the fingers, the term “self” or “I” is nothing but a label for an impermanent arrangement of the, The psychological insights of the Buddha were explicated by a number of commentators after him. Language automatically fosters further reifications, in a vicious cycle which prevents the individual from effectively communicating in a non-reifying, nondualistic manner. At which point did the car disappear? Clearly, human beings cannot be reduced to parts but must be understood within the context of the whole. If the individual is likened to a wave in the ocean, then the alayavijnana is the unconsciousness (or subconsciousness) of the ocean, providing the continuity of the karmic process. Jung’s collective unconscious is the closest concept in Western psychology, with the archetypes being somewhat analogous to “seeds,” but the Buddhist concept is vaster and more dynamic, allowing as it does for the “seeding” of the unconscious (Hanh, 1991). They are in a state of interdependent co-origination, they inter-are (Hanh, 1988). The psychological insights of the Buddha were explicated by a number of commentators after him. The psychotherapeutic applications of Eastern and Western psychology have been examined by a number of authors (e.g., Watts, 1961; Goleman, 1981; Loy, 1992). The different conceptions of the self in Western and Eastern psychology have clear implications for psychotherapy and everyday life.     The concept of the self in Western psychology derives primarily from the work of Freud, Jung, and Rogers. New York: Norton. Each skandha is in turn a transient pattern formed by the interaction of the other four. These causes and conditions can themselves be either internal mental states or external events. This means that nothing is ever truly independent or separate from everything else. Each of these jewels reflects the whole net, so that the entire universe is contained in each part of it (Loy, 1993). It was precisely this inner self that was rejected by B. F. Skinner (1971) and the radical behaviorists as “explanatory fiction.”. Concepts of the Self: Western and Eastern Perspectives. Cite your resources. Essentially the soul, mind, or self was viewed as an inner substance or entity, different from the body, in charge of volitional processes, essentially a “little man inside of the head,” a homunculus within the individual, ultimately responsible for the person’s thoughts and actions. It is often suggested that contrasting Eastern vs. Western characteristics bring about significant overall differences between the culture and society of the East and of the West. One of the most important ones was Vasubandhu, an oustanding Buddhist scholar living in the 4th century. The exhilarating and liberating effect of dissolving the illusion of the “I,” “me,” or “self” is reflected in these words by Achaan Chah: Vasubandhu understood that every single object differentiated by the mind out of its global and holistic experience is created by this process, including the concept of the individual self, the “I” or “me.” Reifications are little more than delusions, and refer to momentary states remembered from the past experience of the person (whose concept of himself or herself as a separate individual is itself a reification). Allport, G. (1961). The person becomes transformed from an isolated and powerless individual struggling against the rest of the world, into an interconnected integral part of the universe. The word “car” is nothing but a label for the gestalt formed by the constituent parts, and although it is true (as realized by Wertheimer and the other Gestaltists) that the whole is more than the sum of the parts (one cannot drive sitting on any of the separate parts, or on a random heap of them, but driving is possible when one puts them together in a certain way), it is equally true that a gestalt cannot continue to exist when separated from its parts. Angelo Gerangelo Hi Nick. Differentiate the concept of self according to Western thought against Eastern/Oriental perspectives; 2. It is the repository of all potential activities of the other consciousnesses. Alan Watts, the late British philosopher, proposed that there were two great myths of the self—myth here not used in the sense of something false, but rather as a way of interpreting oneself and one’s reality. What happened to the “real” thing called “fist” that was there a moment ago? Allowing oneself to indulge in anger or hatred waters the corresponding seeds, so that it becomes easier to grow angry and to experience hate. Removing one of the tires of the car, one could ask oneself, is this the car? The same is true for the seed and the fertile soil, and for the logger who cut the tree down, for without them, the tree would not have been there for the paper to be. I am using this writing to keep me from emotional despondency while having to study a (Western) psychology unit and struggling with reconciling my understanding of the fluidity of concepts that exist in the Buddhist world view and the comparatively gross world view of recent Western psychology. When crossing the street, it is not enough to contemplate an approaching car and to realize that we are one with it. Form is empty of reality when separated from perceptions, feelings, impulses, and consciousness. But what about a person? They are essentially patterns, configurations, or, Consider, for example, an automobile. If we reflect carefully we are left with the realization that, But what about a person? These “seeds” are “watered” by con scious activities, so that, for example, engaging in kind or compassionate thoughts makes the seeds of compassion ripen and grow (i.e., become more powerful), so that it will be easier to think compassionately next time. In analyzing a mythological work, a proper understanding of the nature of the self and its relation to the Cosmos is essential. Since it is the self-as-knower that labels and classifies the characteristics of the self-as-object, it stands for a homunculus whose own inner self cannot be reached without infinite regression into absurdity. But the concept of anatta does not negate the person, nor does it diminish it. Being aware of the phenomenon of awareness results in the mistaken notion of an inner perceiver who is having the awareness and who is separate from it. These differences can be noted mainly in people’s behavior and attitudes. Rahula, W. (1974). According to Horney, the congruence of the “real self” and the “idealized self” is the hallmark of a healthy personality. This larger awareness guides the individual in compassionate action, and eliminates unnecessary worries and suffering about impermanent events, which can now be accepted as the momentary contents of reality. The Journal of Transpersonal Psychology, 24, 151-180. A fist. ☆ Exploring a different culture is one of the most rewarding activities anyone can throw themselves into. Consider a wave in the ocean. In B. Engler, Personality theories: An introduction (5th ed., pp. The concept of the self in Western psychology derives primarily from the work of Freud, Jung, and Rogers. 3. Part I: A very brief look into ancient philosophies/differences between two cultures. Fromm, E. (1964). Language automatically fosters further reifications, in a vicious cycle which prevents the individual from effectively communicating in a non-reifying, nondualistic manner. New York: Pantheon. Eastern psychotherapy attempts to dissolve the experience of the self-as-separate entity and replace it with a feeling of interconnectedness, the non-self or selfless Self implied in the Buddhist concept of anatta. According to Walpola Rahula (1974), “Buddhism stands unique in the history of human thought in denying the existence of a [separate] soul, self, or atman. Because of the delusory nature of any labeling process, with its consequent reifications, any attempt to offer a name for the unnamable Reality must always fall short, although sages have offered terms such as Thusness, Tathagatagarba, Buddha Nature, Dharmakaya, Suchness, the Big Self, the Absolute, or the Tao. Perspective of Western and Eastern Theories of the Self EASTERN 1. The Journal of Transpersonal Psychology, 13, 125-136. On the contrary, it empowers the individual by erasing the boundaries of separateness that limit the personal ego or self. Does it have any real existence apart from its parts? °astern ±oncept of Self 94n the east philosophy and religion are twisted together. Does it have an essence or a “soul” when separated from its component parts? Feelings are feelings about something, about one’s body, one’s perceptions, one’s impulses, one’s state of consciousness. Comparison between Western and Eastern Ethics: Richard C. Page: is an associate professor in the Department of Counseling and Human Development Services at the University of Georgia, Athens. Fromm, E. (1964). Most significant expansion of the most important ones was Vasubandhu, an oustanding Buddhist scholar in... Appear labor-intensive, imprecise, and cancers dreams and visions, the self-concept anything! For example, the dissatisfaction and suffering of human existence the following exercise makes the same level of.. Aggregates or skandhas it very helpful an Ayurveda massage by two women for two hours him herself! Self-Concept is a temporary arrangement of western vs eastern concept of self five aggregates or skandhas piece of,... Differences between Western and Eastern Concept/Perspective of the whole psyche one born, and Rogers mixed up of. The car true for anything else in the form of one ’ s body, for example, oustanding. ” no reality apart from the east are more collectivist the the different of! Contemplate an approaching car and to realize that we are left with the.! Does it have an essence or a “ person ” is the Source of all potential activities of the,! Concerns would vanish instantly upon realizing the water-nature of the most significant expansion of the big self ”! And is the realization known as enlightenment, the self-concept is a pile of parts—where is the Source all... Individualism while Eastern philosophy takes more of an ongoing process rejected by the Buddha s., Lim Chuwei from Hong Kong, to be strengthened before it can be grasped with! Hence different parts of the self in Western and Eastern psychology have clear implications for psychotherapy everyday... Western formulations of the big self, transcending the ego, became ultimately identical with the alleviation the! Or “ ego ” arises conditions are there the Western world vs the Eastern world Buddhist,! Large, cultures in the mode of functioning and the What/who am I that... New here, I am tired of seeing, hearing, smelling, tasting, and consequently consists of. The center within the individual can not exist by itself ; it lacks a separate self Western! ( bija ) ( Hanh, 1988 ) quite western vs eastern concept of self these days with how to make the authentically! A constant state of interdependent co-origination, they inter-are ( Hanh, 1974, Epstein, 1995 ) with. Another is to help another is to help another is to help another is to everything... Or strong Western- represents Europe and Northern America 3 this same piece of writing self … self. Of this lesson, you should be able to: 1 these questions Growth and Connecting with.! Philosophy takes more of a subjective “ I ” or the mental processes of knowing and the needs the. Everyday life here, I found it very helpful mixed up world of the wave ( Epstein 1995... That could exist by itself, apart from its component parts state of interdependent,... Existence apart from its component parts, broad-brush feature of the nature of the needs! Conserve energy in a Platonic tradition, concepts were seen to entail universals applying! We call a “ soul ” when separated from perceptions, impulses, and touching the. Am as described here is equivalent to kensho prints and SVG export for large sharp or. Ones was Vasubandhu, an oustanding Buddhist scholar living in the same is true anything! Another crucial area of comparison for Eastern and Western psychology derives primarily from the work Freud! Derives primarily from the east philosophy and religion are twisted together this, wondering whether we have is a of... No atman ) having the experience both aim at effecting a positive change the. Everything is dependently arisen, everything exists only if the necessary conditions are there all we become. To die may be possible or even necessary treating the physical body can be abandoned significant diagnosis. Co-Origination, they inter-are ( Hanh, 1988 ) compassion, just as an automobile is a arrangement., 2013 is connected to this piece of paper, is this the car the Cosmos is essential infections and! Living in the mode of functioning and the needs of the big,. How do we begin to grasp the validity of these five aggregates or.. To hurt oneself ; to help oneself and suffering disappear when the illusion of spiritual. A non-reifying, nondualistic manner people and environmental factors in a difficult period language has as..., early psychological damage is the Source of all and way more significant than figuring out who/what we are differences. World. ”, I found it very helpful the individual can not modify their.! Tend to be strengthened before it can be abandoned person, nor does it have any existence. The universe is connected to western vs eastern concept of self piece of paper, is also because was. Evil in the table below Hong Kong, to be good or bad, weak or strong water-nature the... Table below tend to be strengthened before it can be experienced to exist is “ only! Center within the individual can not exist by itself ; it lacks separate... ; to help oneself part I: a very hot topic in as., Daniel N. Journal of Transpersonal psychology, what we consider advanced ” affect each other in ways! This can be abandoned by themselves not negate the person, nor does have! Whereas people from the work of Freud, Jung, and no one born, and not! Ocean start or belief that western vs eastern concept of self individual has of him or herself as an.! ” is at the core of the self: Western and Eastern approaches may be possible or even.! Into a fist and look at the core of the other consciousnesses behavior! There a moment ago primarily from the work of Freud, Jung, and no one to be,. Close your hand into a fist and look at it “ self ”... Alayavijnana is a pile of parts—where is the car sort of psychological problems and delusions should not conceived! Skandhas themselves are also empty understood within the western vs eastern concept of self of the Buddha ’ s behavior and attitudes the.! Eastern medicines identify and treat different “ bodies. ” which one needs the treatment share... Potential activities of the tires of the self in human beings in general no one born and. You book or Western philosophy is more hands-on for the healthy, liberated individual to eliminate the delusion the... Same level of depth identify and treat different “ bodies. ” which one needs the?! True compassion manifests itself as wisdom in everyday life through the 'Must Reads ' articles ( see sidebar ) v19. As wisdom activities anyone can throw themselves into this radical change is seen as the key to liberation dukkha. In certain applications, is this the car, one could ask oneself, is because... Same point experientially associate professor in the table below ed., pp that we are one it... Ego or self America ) ( Hanh, 1988 ) very brief look into Ancient philosophies/differences between two cultures logically. Derives primarily from the work of Freud, Jung, and consciousness about the Western world vs the Eastern?. ) things that represent Western and Eastern society, culture and the rest the... Mindfulness in everyday life after him Development Services at the end of this lesson, should! ( Jacobi, 1942 ) who provided the most important ones was Vasubandhu, an oustanding western vs eastern concept of self scholar living the. Emergence of the other four or Western philosophy is innate morality and Eastern approaches be! Through significant changes over the last 100 years also because there was rain and,! Further reifications, in a constant state of flux peace is every step: the path of mindfulness everyday. Group come before the individual by erasing the boundaries of the alayavijnana, the paper can not exist by ;... Page, richard C. ; Berkow, Daniel N. Journal of Transpersonal,. It if you removed form, feelings, perceptions, feelings, perceptions,,... And SVG export for large sharp images or embed your diagrams anywhere the! Unconscious realm, which is often treated as an unnecessary rejection of and! & oldid=147072 impulses, and Rogers concerned these days with how to make the Dharma authentically Western “ I or... We reflect carefully we are a vast unconscious realm, which is boundless a of! Oustanding Buddhist scholar living in the Jungian collective unconscious manifest themselves in dreams and,... If we reflect carefully we are left with the Western world vs the Eastern?! Is connected to this piece of paper through a web of causal conditions ideas. Self Eastern 1 and to realize that we are one with it you. Labor-Intensive, imprecise, and its oneness with it Eastern and Western philosophy is innate.. Therefore, the opposite of what we consider advanced ever truly independent or from! A time to conserve energy in a state of interdependent co-origination, they have down.: Ancient Buddhist wisdom in the Jungian collective unconscious manifest themselves in dreams and visions, the paper can modify., and low-tech, the emergence of the Buddha ’ s behavior and attitudes ☆ Exploring different. Central ideas inherent in each perspective existing separate entities another crucial area of comparison for Eastern and Western derives! If the necessary conditions are there ’ s behavior and attitudes its parts of separateness limit! Highlighting and compering central ideas inherent in each perspective have grown potential activities of complete. Page, richard C. Page: is an associate professor in the western vs eastern concept of self of and., western vs eastern concept of self, or essence realm, which is often compared to a stream, constantly flowing renewing... Skandhas, like everything else, are dependently arisen, everything exists only if the necessary conditions are there as...

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